A war of words has erupted in Southeast Asia as rampaging fires and choking smoke plumes stoke regional tensions between Indonesia and its neighbors.
Dense smoke from agricultural fires in Indonesia have forced flight cancellations and school closures across the region, as diplomatic tensions heat up.
Singapore has slammed "shocking" statements from Indonesian officials who made light of the crisis. In return, Indonesia accused Singapore of being "childish".
Dramas over choking smoke have become an annual soap opera in Southeast Asia as Indonesia continues to raze its forests.
Singapore is now taking legal action against major corporations, including the massive pulp producer Asia Pulp & Paper, that are regarded as key drivers of forest and peatland loss in nearby Sumatra, Indonesia.
In response, Indonesian president Joko Widodo said the recurring fires and smoke were a long-term problem and would require time to be solved.
Fires are used as a quick and cheap way to clear forests and peatlands, with massive forest clearing underway on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Native forests are being destroyed for oil palm and pulp plantations, and for slash-and-burn farming.
Since 1997, mega-fires have become a virtually annual event each dry season. A strong El Niño drought this year -- called "Godzilla" by some -- is increasing rainfall deficits across Indonesia and elsewhere in the western Pacific region.
The fires and smoke are rapidly worsening. In Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, air quality has hit hazardous levels, tens of thousands have suffered respiratory illnesses, numerous flights have been cancelled, and schools have been closed.
Last week, Singapore's air pollution index hit hazardous levels, prompting officials to close all schools and distribute protective face masks. Schools were also closed in the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpur.
Satellites detected more than 2,000 fire "hotspots" last week in Sumatra and Indonesian Borneo.
As fires increase, officials in neighboring countries are growing increasingly frustrated. Singapore has arrested seven corporate officials and suspended the business licenses of four corporations that are headquartered there.
Although many fires are started by small-scale farmers, large corporations are also responsible for burning both directly and indirectly. By building new roads and exploiting large areas of native forest, corporations open up many areas to new human pressures.
Indonesia could and should enforce a major fire ban, but it would require a concerted effort on the part of the Widodo government. Widespread corruption in the region is hindering efforts to enforce existing restrictions on fires and forest clearance.
Until the raging fires and smoke are brought under control, expect more hot words from Indonesia's increasingly frustrated neighbors.