Why are tropical nations cutting down their forests? Is it to feed and house their people? To provide goods for their domestic markets?
Not so much.
In fact, a lot of deforestation is happening so that tropical nations can export stuff -- especially agricultural goods, timber, minerals, and oil -- to consumer nations.
And who are the big consumers? At least for major commodities such as palm oil, beef, soy, and timber, the European Union and China rank as the biggest importers.
The analysis focused on six of the most important tropical nations -- Bolivia, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea -- as well as Argentina and Paraguay. These countries produce a big chunk of the four internationally traded commodities (beef, soy, palm oil, timber) that were the focus of the study.
The study found that about a third of all deforestation could be directly attributed to those four export commodities. And if one includes beef production in the Amazon, which is mostly 'exported' to the major population centers in southern Brazil, then exports of the four commodities account for a whopping 57% of all deforestation.
In all of the studied countries except for Bolivia and Brazil, export markets were the dominant drivers of deforestation. Moreover, for most of the eight countries, the importance of export markets as a driver of deforestation and greenhouse-gas emissions increased over time.
What this says is that much of tropical deforestation is being driven not by the needs of local people, but by growing global demand. The E.U. and China are big sinners, but there's plenty of blame to spread around among other nations.
A lot of the food and timber we consume comes from tropical nations. We all want to live well, but there is no free lunch. Somewhere, a chainsaw is roaring and a bulldozer growling so that we can have cheap food and timber.