The railroad, which will be 5,300 kilometers long in total, will begin at Rio de Janeiro on Brazil's Atlantic coast and terminate at the Pacific Ocean.
The trans-Amazonian railway was announced by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, who is expected to unveil billions in other investments and trade deals during an eight-day South American tour. In addition to Brazil, China is targeting Peru, Colombia, and Chile during this trip.
The rail line will be designed to increase exports such as soy, iron ore, and timber to China. Conservationists and scientists are expressing fears about its potential to open up large swaths of virgin forest and indigenous peoples to large-scale development pressures.
"This massive project could be the death knell for a significant fraction of South American biodiversity and a knife to the heart of the Amazon’s hydrological cycle," said ALERT member Thomas Lovejoy, a former environmental advisor to three U.S. presidents.
China is also promoting other major infrastructure projects in Latin America, including a massive canal through Nicaragua and a railway across Colombia.
Informed observers expect heated resistance to the Trans-Amazon Railroad from environmental and indigenous-rights advocates.
Fortunately, not all mega-projects like this come to pass, though many do. Let's fervently hope this is one that never gets off the drawing board.