Corporations are easy targets as environmental bad-guys -- they're big, faceless, wealthy entities. And in countries like Indonesia, many corporations -- including oil palm, wood pulp, timber, and mining companies -- have had bad environmental records.
But it's an oversimplification to blame the corporations for everything, as Indonesia-based conservation scientist Erik Meijaard argues in a recent editorial.
Meijaard homes in on an uncomfortable truth: half or more of all forest destruction is evidently caused by smallholders -- farmers and locals who burn or log forests, often illegally.
In a recent email message, Meijaard adds that deforestation is also being driven by small- and medium-scale investors. "These are not small, poor, disadvantaged farmers, but government and law enforcement officials, local legislature members, local business people."
One key problem is that the rule of law in Indonesia is so lax, and corruption so rampant. Even those who get caught usually find it easy to bribe their way out of trouble.
Indonesia's newly elected president, Joko Widodo, was originally trained as a forester, and he is being urged to follow through on his campaign promises to "eradicate illegal logging, illegal fishing, and illegal mining" and "enforce environmental laws".
In politics, promises are cheap. Action is what counts. And despite plenty of talk and promises in the past, Indonesia now has the world's highest rate of forest loss.
But it's going to take a broader effort -- to enforce the law and protect environments from all illegal exploiters, large and small -- to save Indonesia's vanishing forests.